Soil Remediation Technologies for Heavy Metals – A Review
Soil is a very vital necessity to the ecosystem and human population. Due to the urbanization and industrialization, the quality and the fertility of soil is deteriorating. This has been a huge concern among countries to discover the suitable yet effective solution to remediate the soil as the contaminated soil may introduce unhealthy and unsafe environment to society. One of the common pollutants in soils are heavy metals and it is very challenging to remediate as it is not biodegradable materials. Remediation methods for metals can be classified to two categories; in-situ remediation and ex-situ remediation. Studies show that chemical remediation the most effective methods used. Chemical remediation and biological remediation are also another two available options. Chemical remediation methods can be categorized into four; chemical leaching, chemical fixation, electrokinetic remediation and vitrify technology. Biological remediation includes phytoremediation, bioremediation and the combination of the remediation are one of the most cost effective methods that can be implemented especially in poor and middle income countries as it involves natures such as plants and animals in the process.
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