Enhancing the Retention of Lectured-Information for Higher Education Students through Note-Taking Skills
Note-taking is an important skill to be taught to the learners so that it can be used as a tool for them to perceive and retrieve the lectured information; especially during Theory courses dealing with intense information. Keeping this in mind I tailored my study which could examine whether Note-Taking, Note-making and Note-reviewing can improve the retention skills of my learners and whether these retention skills can be later used by them to recall the retained–information. I tried to measure these retention skills by using customized retention tests to observe the resulted pattern. The research question that guided my study was “How efficiently the Notes-Taking, Notes-Making and Notes-Reviewing can improve the short term retention of lecture-information for the learners in Higher Education at lower level of academic program (Interior design) with respect to free recall, accuracy and comprehension type of questions ?”. This qualitative research uses Primary data collected from 22 students. Harmonious to some of the studies in the past, this study reaffirmed the importance and vital impact of Notes taking and reviewing on the short term retention of received information. In addition a pattern was revealed that Notes making enhances comprehension skills and notes reviewing enhances accuracy skills.
 Akintunde, O. (2013). Effects of cornell, verbatim and outline note-Taking strategies on students’ retrieval of lecture information in Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(25), 67-73.
 Anderson, H.M. (2018). Dale’s cone of experience. Available at: http://www.queensu.ca/teachingandlearning/modules/active/documents/Dales_Cone_of_Experience_summary.pdf.
 Anderson, T.H. & Armbuster, B.B. (1986). The value of taking notes during lectures. Available at: https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/17574/ctrstreadtechrepv01986i00374_opt.pdf?sequence=1.
 Anon. (2016). Ebbinghaus and the forgetting curve. Available at: http://www.wranx.com/ebbinghaus-and-the-forgetting-curve/.
 Anon. (2018). Outlining method for note taking. Available at: https://www.missouristate.edu/assets/busadv2014/p.24.pdf.
 Biggs, J. & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for quality learning at University. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
 Boch, F. & Piolat, A. (2005). Note taking and learning: A Summary of research. The WAC Journal, 16, 101-113.
 Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: Where we are today?. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 445-457.
 Boye, A. (2012). Note-taking in the 21st century: Tips for instructors and students. Available at: https://www.depts.ttu.edu/tlpdc/Resources/Teaching_resources/TLPDC_teaching_resources/Documents/NotetakingWhitepaper.pdf.
 Bridge, D.J. (2005). Memory & cognition: What difference does gender make?. Available at: http://surface.syr.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1637&context=honors_capstone.
 Bruno, P., Sabrina D., Renaudineau, S., Poirie, R., &, Savehe, E. (2009). Formation and stability of recognition memory: what happens upon recall?. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 4, 1-11.
 Carter, J. F. & Van Matre, N. H. (1975). Note taking versus note having. Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 900–904.
 Chen, C.R. (2013). Assessing Note-Taking. Available at: http://fllcccu.ccu.edu.tw/conference/2005conference_2/download/C13.pdf.
 Crawford, M.J., Ducker, N., MacGregor, L., Kojima, S., & Siegel, J. (2015). Perspectives on Note taking in EFL Listening. Available at: https://jalt-publications.org/files/pdf-article/jalt2015-pcp_037.pdf.
 Davoudi, M., Sabzevari, Moattarian, N., & Zareian, G. (2015). Impact of Cornell Note-Taking Method Instruction on Grammar Learning of Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of Studies in Education, 5(2), 252-265.
 Dezure, D., Kaplan, M., & Deerman, M. (2001). Research on students note taking: Implications for faculty and graduate student instructors. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247399328.
 Di Vesta, F. J., & Gray, G. S. (1973). Listening and note taking: Immediate and delayed recall as functions of variations in thematic continuity, note taking, and length of listening-review intervals. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 278-287.
 DuBois, K.A., Christian, N.F., Mc Shane, A. D., Meyerhoffer, M., & Roskelley, D. (1991). Note-taking functions and techniques. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 240-245.
 Dunkel, P. (1988). Academic listening and lecture note-taking for L1/L2 students: The need to investigate the utility of the axioms of good note taking. The Canada Journal, 6(1), 11-26.
 Ferris, D. & Tagg, T. (1996). Academic listening /speaking tasks for ESL students: Problems, suggestions and implication. TESOL Quarterly, 30(2), 297-320.
 Fisher, J. L. & Harris, M. B. (1974). Note taking and recall. The Journal of Educational Research, 67, 291–292.
 Flom, P. (2017). Validity & reliability of focus groups. Available at: http://www.ehow.com/facts_6778649_validity-reliability-focus-groups.html.
 Friedman, M. (2017). Notes on note-taking: Review of research and insights for students and instructors. Available at: http://hilt.harvard.edu/files/hilt/files/notetaking_0.pdf.
 Guest Post. (2013). Note making: Brain exercise to enhance reading comprehension skills. Available at: http://knowledgeworks.org/worldoflearning/2013/01/note-making-brain-exercise-to-enhance-reading-comprehension-skills-2/.
 Green, J. & Thorogood, N. (2004). Qualitative methods for health research. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.
 Hadwin, A. & Oshige, M. (2011). Self-regulation, co-regulation, and socially shared regulation: Exploring perspectives of social in self-regulated learning theory university of Victoria. Teachers College Record, 113(2), 240–264.
 Hayati, A.M. & Jalilifar, A. (2009). The impact of note-taking strategies on listening comprehension of EFL learners. English Language Teaching, 2(1), 101-111.
 Hismanoglu, M. (2000). Language learning strategies in foreign language Learning and teaching. Available at: http://iteslj.org/Articles/Hismanoglu-Strategies.html.
 Kiewra, K. A. (1987). Note taking and review: The research and its implications. Journal of Instructional Science, 16, 233-249.
 Kiewra, K. (1988). Note taking and Review strategies: Theoretical orientations, empirical findings and Instructional practices. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 4(2), 5-17.
 Kiewra, K. A. (1989). A review of note-taking: The encoding-storage paradigm and beyond. Educational Psychology Review, 1(2), 147-172.
 Kiewra, K. A., Benton, S.L., Kim, S., Risch, N., & Christensen, M. (1995). Effects of note taking format and study technique on recall and relational performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 172-187.
 King, A. (1992).Comparison of self- questioning, summarizing, and Note taking – review as strategies for learning from Lectures. American Educational research Journal, 29(2), 303-323.
 Kobayashi, K. (2005). What limits the encoding effect of note-taking? A meta-analytic examination. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 242-262.
 Maxwell, G.S. (2001). Teacher observation in student assessment. Available at: https://www.qcaa.qld.edu.au/downloads/publications/research_qscc_assess_report_4.pdf.
 Mayer, R.E. (1987). A review of note-taking: The encoding-storage paradigm and beyond. Educational Psychology Review, 1(2), 147-172. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01326640.
 Norton L.S. (1981). The effects of note-taking and subsequent use on long‐term recall. Innovations in Education and Training Manual, 18(1), 16-22. Available at: http://srhe.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0033039810180104.
 Palmer, D. (2007). What is the best way to motivate students in science? Teaching Science-The Journal of the Australian Science Teachers Association, 53(1), 38-42.
 Peper, R. J. & Mayer, R. E. (1978). Note taking as a generative activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70, 514-522.
 Pine, G.J. (2017). Conducting teacher action research. in teacher action research: Building knowledge democracies. Available at:
 Piolat, A., Olive, T., & Kellogg, R. T. (2005). Cognitive effort during note taking. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 291-312.
 Quintus, L., Borr, M., Duffield, S., Napoleon, L., & Welch, A. (2012). The impact of the cornell note-taking method on students’ Performance in a high school family and consumer sciences class. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences Education, 30(1), 27-38.
 Race, P. (2010). Making learning happen. (2nd ed.). London, England : SAGE Publications Inc.
 Rahmani, M. & Sadeghi, K. (2011). Effects of note-taking training on reading comprehension and recall. The Reading Matrix, 11(2), 116-128.
 Roediger, H. L. & Karpicke, J. D. (2006). The power of testing memory: basic research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 181-210.
 Rust, F. & Clarke, C. (2016). How to do action research in your classroom. Available at: https://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/Action_Research_Booklet.pdf.
 Savin-Baden, M., & Major, C. H. (2013). Qualitative research: The essential guide to theory and practice. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.
 Sheppard, A. (2015). Note taking strategies in a lecture environment. Available at:
 Van der Meer, J. (2012). Students’ note-taking challenges in the twenty-first century: Considerations for teachers and academic staff developers. Teaching in Higher Education, 17, 13–23.
 VanderStoep, S.W. & Pintrich, P.R. (2008). Taking notes. Learning to learn: The skill and will of college success. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 Williams, K. & Williams, C. (2011). Five key ingredients for improving motivation. Research in Higher Education Journal, 11. Available at:
 Yeasmin, S. & Rahman, K.F. (2012).'Triangulation' research method as the tool of social science research. BUP Journal, 1(1), 154-163.
 Zimmermann, B.J. (2002). Becoming a self-regulated Learner: An over review. Theory into Practice, 41(2), 64-70.