Soil Remediation Technologies for Heavy Metals – A Review

  • Eva Lailatun Nisa Fatdillah
  • Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi
Keywords: Soil Remediation, Contaminated Soil, Heavy Metals, Chemical Remediation, Biological Remediation


Soil is a very vital necessity to the ecosystem and human population. Due to the urbanization and industrialization, the quality and the fertility of soil is deteriorating. This has been a huge concern among countries to discover the suitable yet effective solution to remediate the soil as the contaminated soil may introduce unhealthy and unsafe environment to society. One of the common pollutants in soils are heavy metals and it is very challenging to remediate as it is not biodegradable materials. Remediation methods for metals can be classified to two categories; in-situ remediation and ex-situ remediation. Studies show that chemical remediation the most effective methods used. Chemical remediation and biological remediation are also another two available options. Chemical remediation methods can be categorized into four; chemical leaching, chemical fixation, electrokinetic remediation and vitrify technology. Biological remediation includes phytoremediation, bioremediation and the combination of the remediation are one of the most cost effective methods that can be implemented especially in poor and middle income countries as it involves natures such as plants and animals in the process.


Download data is not yet available.


Fabbricino, M., Ferraro, A., Luongo, V., Pontoni, L., & Race, M. (2018). Soil washing optimization, recycling of the solution, and ecotoxicity assessment for the remediation of pb-contaminated sites using EDDS. Sustainability, 10(3), 636.

Istrate, I., Cocârță, D., Wu, Z., & Stoian, M. (2018). Minimizing the health risks from hydrocarbon contaminated soils by using electric field-based treatment for soil remediation. Sustainability, 10(1), 253.

Ludlow, A., & Roux, P. (2012). Innovative technologies for sustainable environmental remediation in poor and middle income countries. Journal of Health and Pollution, 2(3), 1-4.

Ranieri, E., Bombardelli, F., Gikas, P., & Chiaia, B. (2016). Soil pollution prevention and remediation. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, 2016, 1–2.

Wang, P., Li, J., & Wang, H. (2013). Engineering properties of heavy metal contaminated soil affected by EDTA Washing. EJGE. Available at:

Wood, P. (2001). Remediation methods for contaminated sites. In Assessment and Reclamation of Contaminated Land. Retrieved from

Yao, Z., Li, J., Xie, H., & Yu, C. (2012). Review on remediation technologies of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 16, 722–729.

Yuswir, N. S., Praveena, S. M., Aris, A. Z., Syed Ismail, S. N., de Burbure, C., & Hashim, Z. (2015). Heavy metal contamination in urban surface soil of klang district (Malaysia). Soil and Sediment Contamination: An International Journal, 24(8), 865–881.

How to Cite
Eva Lailatun Nisa Fatdillah, & Nur Irfah Mohd Pauzi. (2018). Soil Remediation Technologies for Heavy Metals – A Review. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 8(6), 171-175.