Relationship between ISO 9001 Certification and the Number of Non-Conformities Identified during System Audits in Selected Public Universities in Kenya

  • Pius Chumba
  • Hellen Wothaya Sang
  • Joash Kibett
  • Joseph Kiprono Kirui
Keywords: ISO 9001, Certification, Non-Conformities, System, Audits, University


The quest for International Standard Organization (ISO) 9001 certification as an international quality tool has been embraced for process improvement and positive perception by  customers. With ISO 9001 certification, an institution is anticipated to offer exemplary   goods or services that meet client prerequisites, needs and expectations thus enhance organizational performance. As evident in previous studies, despite ISO 9001 certification, cases on wastages, missing student marks and time wastage were indicators of non-conformance. There was no clear evidence of past studies on the relationship between ISO 9001 certification and organizational performance with special interest on number of non-conformities identified during systems audit being a component of organizational performance. The purpose of the study was therefore to establish the relationship between ISO 9001 certification and the number of non-conformities identified during system audits in selected public Universities in Kenya. Explanatory research design was used in the study. The research targeted a population of 433 respondents from which a sample size of 205 respondents was selected using purposive and simple random sampling designs. A questionnaire was used to collect data. To answer the objectives of the study, simple linear regression analysis was performed. From the model, (R2 = .600) shows that ISO 9001 certification account for 60% variation in number of non-conformities identified during system audits. There was a positive significant relationship between ISO 9001 certification and number of non-conformities identified during system audits (β=0.611 and p <0.05). Therefore, a unit increase in ISO 9001 certification led to reduced number of non-conformities identified during system audits. The ISO 9001 certification had a significant influence on the number of non-conformities identified during system audits. For every adoption of the ISO 9001 certification in public universities the number of non-conformities identified during system audits reduced.  The study concludes that ISO 9001 certification had a significant positive influence on the number of non-conformities identified during system audits. Thus, for every adoption of the ISO 9001 certification in public universities the number of non-conformities identified reduced. The study recommends that there is need for management of public universities through the department of quality management to address the non-conformities raised during system audits, need for university management to raise awareness on the importance of standardization and conformity assessment and to entrench the culture of quality in the Kenyan society by promoting practical usage of standards and development of quality related curricula in public universities.


Download data is not yet available.


Harper, C. (2015). Organizations: Structures, processes and outcomes. Routledge.

Child, J. (2015). Organization: Contemporary principles and practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Hongyi, S. (2000). Total quality management, ISO 9000 certification and performance improvement. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 17(2), 168-179.

Manders, B. (2015). Implementation and impact of ISO 9001. Available at:

Tang X. & Yun H. (2008). Data model for quality in product lifecycle. Computers in Industry, 59(2–3), 167– 179.

Kaynak H. & Hartley J.L. (2005), Exploring quality management practices and high-tech firm performance. Journal of High Technology Management Research, 16(2), 255-272.

Sousa R. & Voss C.A., (2002), Quality management re-visited: A reflective review and agenda for future research. Journal of Operations Management, 20, 91-109.

Pyzdek T. (2003). Quality engineering handbook. CRC Press. ISBN: 0824746147.

Zu X., Fredendall L.D., & Douglas T.J. (2008). The evolving theory of quality management: The role of Six Sigma. Journal of Operations Management, 26(5), 630-650.

Linderman, K., Schroeder, R. G., Zaheer, S., & Choo, A. S. (2003). Six Sigma: A goal theoretic perspective. Journal of Operations Management, 21(2), 193-203.

Sureshchandar G.S., Rajendran C., & Anantharaman R.N. (2001). A conceptual model for total quality management in service organizations. Total Quality Management, 12(3), 343-363.

Todorut A.V. (2012). Sustainable development of organizations through total quality management. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 927-931.

Hassan, A. & Ibrahim, E. (2012). Corporate environmental information disclosure: factors influencing companies' success in attaining environmental awards. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(1), 32-46.

Sun L. & Liu X. (2011). Control analysis of production and apparent quality of automobile large plastic parts. Procedia, Engineering, 16, 438-443.

Savino M.M., Apolloni S., & Ouzrout Y. (2008). Product quality pointers for small lots production: A new driver for Quality Management Systems. International Journal of Product Development, 5(1/2), 199–211.

Hoyle, D. (2017). ISO 9000 Quality systems handbook-updated for the ISO 9001: 2015 standard. UK: Routledge.

Aba, E. K., Badar, M. A., & Hayden, M. A. (2016). Impact of ISO 9001 certification on firms financial operating performance. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 33(1), 78-89.

Schroeder. (2008). Operations management. (4th ed.). New York, USA: Mc GrawHill. Print.

Aguilar-Escobar, V. G. & Garrido-Vega, P. (2016). Applying the theory of constraints to the logistics service of medical records of a hospital. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 22(3), 139-146.

Boiral, O. (2011). Managing with ISO systems: lessons from practice. Long Range Planning, 44(3), 197-220.

Jackson, S. E. & Schuler, R. S. (2000). Managing human resources: A partnership perspective. South-Western College Publishing.

Weigl, T., Hartmann, E., Jahns, C., & Darkow, I. L. (2008). Inter-organizational network structures in Russia: organizational changes from institutional and social embeddedness perspectives. Human Resource Development International, 11(2), 151-165.

Chacha, N. C. (2004, August). Reforming higher education in Kenya: Challenges, lessons and opportunities. In State University of New York workshop with the Parliamentary Committee on Education, Science and Technology, Naivasha, Kenya.

Thuo, A. D. M. (2013). An analysis of role (s) of actors in land use change in the Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Kenya. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 3(4), 318.

Omwanda, S. M. (2018). Factors influencing successful transition to ISO 9001: 2015: A case study of national social security fund. Doctoral Dissertation, United States International University-Africa.

Karani, S. R. & Bichanga, W. O. (2012). Effects of total quality management implementation on business performance in service institutions: A case of Kenya Wildlife Services. International Journal of Research Studies in Management, 1(1), 59-76.

Irianto. D. (2005). Quality management implementation: A multiple case study in Indonesian manufacturing firms. University of Twente, The Netherlands.

Lee, H.K.N., To, K.C.C., & Yu, T.Y. (2015). Costs and benefits of ISO 9000 series: a practical study. International Journal of Quality & Reliability, 16(7), 675-690.

Jaca, C. & Psomas, E. (2015). Total quality management practices and performance outcomes in Spanish service companies. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 26(9-10), 958-970.

Miller, B. A. (2016). Assessing organizational performance in higher education. John Wiley & Sons.

Del Chiaro, M., Verbeke, C., Salvia, R., Klöppel, G., Werner, J., McKay, C., & Segersvärd, R. (2013). European expert’s consensus statement on cystic tumours of the pancreas. Digestive and Liver Disease, 45(9), 703-711.

Boer J. & Blaga P. (2012). A more efficient production using quality tools and human resources management. Procedia Economics and Finance, 3, 681-689.

Del Castillo A.S. & Sardi N. (2012). ISO standards and the quality concept applied to anesthesia services. Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology, 40(1), 14-16.

Murthy D.N.P. & Ravi Kumar K. (2000). Total product quality. International Journal of Production Economics, 67, 253-267.

Carnevalli J.A. & Miguel P.C. (2008). Review, analysis and classification of the literature on QFD-Types of research, difficulties and benefits. International Journal of Production Economics, 114(2), 737-754.

Forza C. & Filippini R. (1998). TQM impact on quality conformance and customer satisfaction: A causal model. International Journal of Production Economics, 55, 1-20.

Lillrank P. & Kujala, J. (2006). Managing common and specific causes of quality problems in project-based organizations. International Journal of Productivity and Quality Management, 1(1), 56–68.

Savino M.M. & Seklouli Sekhari A. (2009). A quality management system based on fuzzy quality pointers in ISO 9000. International Journal of Product Development, 8(4), 419–430.

Lari A., Asllani A., & Bahramian Z. (2002). Quality management using a knowledge-based approach, International Journal of Operations and Quantitative Management, 8(4), 237-250.

Maglić L., Kondić Z., & Kljajin M. (2007). Quality audits of management systems. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 55(11), 695-700.

Maglić L. (2002). Difficulties during implementation of quality management systems according to requirements of ISO 9001:2000, CIM 2002 Computer Integrated Manufacturing and High-Speed Machining. 8th International Scientific Conference on Production Engineering, VI021-VI029.

Wu R.C., Chen R.S., & Chian S.S. (2006). Design of a product quality control system based on the use of data mining techniques. IIE Transactions (Institute of Industrial Engineers), 38(1), 39-51.

Shetwan A.G., Vitanov V.I., & Tjahjono B. (2011). Allocation of quality control stations in multistage manufacturing systems, Computers & Industrial Engineering, 60(4), 473–484.

Leong T.K., Zakuan N., Zameri Mat Saman M., (2012). Quality Management Maintenance and Practices- Technical and Non-Technical Approaches. Procedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65(3), 688-696.

Wiengarten F. & Pagell M. (2012). The importance of quality management for the success of environmental management initiatives. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 407-415.

Colledani M. & Tolio T. (2012). Integrated quality, production logistics and maintenance analysis of multi-stage asynchronous manufacturing systems with degrading machines. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, 61(1), 455–458.

Chi Phan A., Bahjat Abdallah A., & Matsui Y. (2011). Quality management practices and competitive performance: Empirical evidence from Japanese manufacturing companies. International Journal of Production Economics, 133(2), 518-529.

Dhouib K., Gharbi A., & Ben Aziza M.N. (2012). Joint optimal production control/preventive maintenance policy for imperfect process manufacturing cell. International Journal of Production Economics, 137(1), 126-136.

Ahire S.L. & Dreyfus P. (2000). The impact of design management and process management on quality: An empirical investigation. Journal of Operations Management, 18(5), 549-575.

Kull T.J. & Wacher J.G. (2010). Quality management effectiveness in Asia: The influence of culture. Journal of Operations Management, 28(3), 223-239.

Love C.E., Guo R., & Irwin K. H. (1995). Acceptable quality level versus zero-defects: some empirical evidence. Computers & Operations Research, 22(4), 403-441.

Winkler J.C. (1995). Quality costs - An important area of business management in the textile industry. Textile Veredlung, 30(7-8), 145-151.

Khana, M., Jaber, M.Y., & Bonney, M. (2011). An economic order quantity (EOQ) for items with imperfect quality and inspection errors. International Journal of Production Economics, 133, 113–118.

Khana, M., Jaber, M.Y., Guiffrida, A.L., & Zolfaghari, S. (2011). A review of the extensions of a modified EOQ model for imperfect quality items. International Journal of Production Economics, 132, 1–12.

Wahab, M.I.M., & Jaber, M.Y. (2010). Economic order quantity model for items with imperfect quality, different holding costs, and learning effects: A note. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 58, 186–190.

Martin, A. (2016). ISO 9001 impact on operational performance. Available at:

Yahia-Berrouiguet, A., Mankouri, I., & Benarbia, N. (2015). Impact of ISO 9001 certification on firm performance: Case study of beni saf cement company. Journal of Economics and Business Research, 21(1), 158-165.

Karahan, A. M. & Tetik, A. N. (2012). The determination of the effect level on employee performance of TQM practices with artificial neural networks: A case study on manufacturing industry enterprises in turkey. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(7), 133-142.

Goldratt, E. M. (1992). An introduction to theory of constraints: The production approach. Workshop Description. Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute.

Costas, J., Ponte, B., De La Fuente, D., Pino, R., & Puche, J. (2015). Applying goldratt’s theory of constraints to reduce the bullwhip effect through agent-based modeling. Expert Systems with Applications, 42(4), 2049-2060.

Mabin, V. (2015). Goldratt's “Theory of constraints” Thinking processes: A systems methodology linking soft with hard. Available at:

Golmohammadi, D. (2015). A study of scheduling under the theory of constraints. International Journal of Production Economics, 165, 38-50.

Saunders, M. N. (2011). Research methods for business students. (5th ed.). India: Pearson Education.

Klein, D. & De Bruine, M. (1995). A thinking process for establishing management policies. Review of Business, 16(3), 31-37.

Tavakol, M. & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach's alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53-55.

Borchardt, M., Pereira, G. M., Sellitto, M. A., & Gomes, L. P. (2015). Guidelines for improving the application of eco-design in the regional furniture industry of Southern Brazil. Latin American Journal of Management for Sustainable Development, 2(3-4), 244-263.

How to Cite
Pius Chumba, Hellen Wothaya Sang, Joash Kibett, & Joseph Kiprono Kirui. (2019). Relationship between ISO 9001 Certification and the Number of Non-Conformities Identified during System Audits in Selected Public Universities in Kenya. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 9(5), 15-23.