Motivation and Challenges Facing Employers in Recruiting Professional Women in Building Construction Companies in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania
The study intended to assess the motivation and challenges facing employers in recruitment of professional women in building construction companies; by analyzing motivation; examining the challenges encountered; and proposing the possible measures to overcome challenges facing employers in recruiting professional women in building construction companies, in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania. This descriptive designed survey study, engaged large size contractors as a unit of analysis, with building contractors from Class I and II, within Dar-Es-Salaam Tanzania, as a study population and a sample. Moreover, the study involved non-probability sampling; specifically, judgmental sampling, which was used in determining the number of registered building construction firms in Dar-Es-Salaam particularly from Class I and II. Literature review; open and closed ended questionnaires administered to employers and human resources managers in building construction companies in Dar-Es-Salaam, were used in collecting primary and secondary qualitative and quantitative data. In collecting data, total of 56 questionnaire were distributed, whereby only 41 (73%) were returned. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), while qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Findings revealed the need to address gender balance; non-discriminatory policy; improved staff retention (you can keep your employees, boost their morale); a better reflection to the customers or clients; encourage organization to change from gender stereotype; different perspective (benefits from different points of view and approaches); enhance collaboration (improve team processed and group collaboration); the perception of women being more multitasked than men, and the need to explore a wide talent pool; women are professionally ethical, committed to their work, and less corrupt, with better listening and soft skills; improve reputation (no gender biasness to your company); and women are loyal, practical innovative, and patience, as the most prevalent motivations that; pushes employers to recruit professional women in building construction companies. Furthermore, the critical challenges revealed were; work-life balance, private life demands, emotions, and non-family friendly working hours; lack of good recruitment practises, procedures and selection plans; lack of good staff development plan; lack of gender policy; lack of confidence and low number of female applicants in the building construction industry; and lack of proper motivation and mentorship policy. The study concluded that; more attention must be made on recruiting more women in building construction industry as a part of the gender equality, in order to increase their participation number in the construction industry, against male, alongside addressing all the challenges and motivation factors revealed in the study. Lastly, the study recommended; incentives (such as training and mentoring); support and encouragement of women participation in construction; enhancement of labour laws and regulations; and mandatory to recruitment of more women in construction industry.
Aboagye-Nimo, E., Wood, H., & Collison, J. (2019). Complexity of women’s modernday challenges in construction. Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-09-2018-0421/
Agapiou, A. (2002). Perceptions of gender roles and attitudes towards work among male and female operatives in the Scottish construction industry. Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 20(08), 697-705.
Ahuja, V. & Kumari, S. (2012). Issues and challenges for women in construction industry: Global as well as Indian perspective. In Proceedings of the Regional Conference of the International Network of Women Engineers & Scientists (INWES), New Delhi, India. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264697438_Issues_and_challenges_for_women_in_construction_industry_Global_as_well_as_Indian_perspective.
Alves, S. & English, J. (2018). Female students’ preparedness for a male-dominated workplace. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 16(04), 581-595
Amaratunga, D., Haigh, R., Lee, A., & Elvitigala, E. (2009). Construction industry and women: A review of barriers. International Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 29(03), 559-571.
Aneke, E.O., Derera, E., & Bomani, M.. (2017). An exploratory study of challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in the construction industry in South Africa. International Journal of Business and Management Studies, 09(02), 35-51.
Anuar, K.F., Abas, S.S.P., Ibrahim, A., & Hamzah, A.I.N. (2017). The barriers and challenges of women’s involvement in the construction industry within Klang Valley area. International Journal of Industrial Management (IJIM), 03, 61-75.
Aretoulis, G.N. (2018). Gender based perception of successful construction of project managers’ attributes. International Journal of Social Science, 07(112). Available at: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/socsci.
Barg, J.E., Ruparathna, R., Mendis, D., & Hewage, K.N. (2014). Motivating workers in construction. Journal of Construction Engineering, Available at: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/703084.
Breaugh, J.A. & Starke, M. (2000). Research on employee recruitment; so many studies, so many questions. Journal of Management, 26(03), 405-434.
Buncio, D.D. (2019). The construction industry has a problem, and women are going to solve it. Available at: https://www.bdcnetwork.com/blog/construction-industry-has-problem-and-women-are-going-solve-it.
Construction Industry Federation (CIF). (2019). Women in the construction industry. Available at: https://cif.ie/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/CIF-Membership-Diversity-SURVEY-REPORT.pdf.
Construction Industry Training Board (CITB). (2003). Construction skills forecast report. Available at: http://www.citb.co.uk.
Contractors Registration Board (CRB). (2015). What is the way forward? Building capacity to local contractors. Tanzania: CRB Newsletter.
Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF). (2017). The local government system in Tanzania: Country profile 2017-2018. Available at: http://www.clgf.org.uk/default/assets/File/Country_profiles/Tanzania.pdf.
Accessed on Friday, February 21, 2020.
English, J. & Hay, P. (2015). Black South African women in construction: cues for success. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 13(01), 144-164.
English, J., Haupt T.C., & Smallwood, J,J. (2006). Women, construction and health and safety: South African and Tanzanian perspectives. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 04(01), 18-28.
Fernando, N.G., Amaratunga, D., & Haigh, D. (2014). The career advancement of the professional women in the UK construction industry: The career success factors. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology (JEDT), 12(01), 53-70.
Fortune, J. (2010). I am the mother and the father-Women in construction in Cuba and the U.K. International Journal of Cuban Studies, 02(1/2), 147-156.
Francis, V. (2017). What influences professional women’s career advancement in construction?. Journal Construction Management and Economics, 35(05), 254-275.
French, E. & Strachan, S. (2015). Women at work! evaluating equal employment policies and outcomes in construction. International Journal of Equality, Diversity and Inclusion, 34(03), 227-243.
Galea, N., Powell, A., Loosemore, M., & Chappell, L. (2015). Designing robust and revisable policies for gender equality: Lessons from the Australian construction industry. Journal of Construction Management and Economics, 33(05/06), 375-389.
Gale, W.A. (1994). Women in non-traditional occupations: the construction industry. Women in Management Review, 09(02), 03-15.
Gurjao S. (2006). Inclusivity: The changing role of women in the construction workforce. CIOB.
Gyasi, A. (2012). Assessing roles and contribution of women in the construction industry in Kumasi. Unpublished MSc. Development Policy and Planning Dissertation, Kwame Nkurumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 104 Pages.
Hakala, S.R. (2008). Women entrepreneurs: challenges and successes in non-traditional industries. PhD Diss. University of Phoenix.
Hatipkarasulu, Y. & Roff, S.E. (2011). Women in Construction: An Early Historical Perspective. 47th ASC Annual International Conference Proceedings. Associated Schools of Construction.
English, J. & Hay, P. (2015). Black South African women in construction; cues for success. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 13(01), 144-164.
Haupt, T. & Fester, F. (2012). Women-owned construction enterprises: a South African assessment. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology (JEDT), 10(01), 52-71.
Haupt, T. & Harinarain, N. (2016). The image of the construction industry and its employment attractiveness. Acta Structilia, 23(02), 79-108.
Higher Education Statistics Agency. (HESA). (2009). All students by subject of study, domicile and gender. Higher Education Statistics Agency.
International Labour Organization–(ILO). (2018). World employment social outlook. Switzerland: ILO Publication Bureau.
International Labour Organization–(ILO). (2015). Good practices and challenges in promoting decent work in construction and infrastructure projects. An issues paper for discussion at the Global Dialogue Forum on Good Practices and Challenges in Promoting Decent Work in Construction and Infrastructure Projects, (Geneva, 19–20 November 2015), by Sectoral Policies Department, p-ISBN 978-92-2-130112-7; e-ISBN 978-92-2-130113-4, an ILO Publications Bureau, Geneva, Switzerland, 48 Pages.
International Labour Organization–(ILO). (2011). Baseline study to assess gender disparities in construction sector jobs. The Towards Gender Parity in Pakistan (TGP) Project. Islamabad, Pakistan: ILO Publications Bureau.
Jaafar, M. & Othman, N.L. (2013). Assessing the capability of women construction project managers based on liberal feminist theory. International Journal of Construction Management, 13(04), 35-52.
Jonas, S.N.M. (2015). A model for the development of women in construction in the limpopo province of South Africa. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis in Rural Development, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa, 199 Pages.
Jongo, J.S., Tesha, D.N.G.A.K., Kassonga, R., Teyanga, J.J., & Lyimo, K.S. (2019). mitigation measures in dealing with delays and cost overrun in public building projects in Dar- Es-Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (IJCEM), 08(3), 81-96.
Jongo, J.S., Tesha, D.N.G.A.K., Luvara., V.G.M., Teyanga, J.J., & Makule, E.T. (2018). fire safety preparedness in building construction sites in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 66(03), 154-169.
Kamugisha, A. (2012). An analysis of the factors influencing the choice of careers in building industry by professional women in Tanzania. Unpublished BSc. in Building Economics Dissertation, Department of Building Economics, ARDHI University(ARU), Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Kalimullah A.R., Yaghoubi N.M., & Moloudi J. (2010). Survey of relationship between organizational justice and empowerment, (A case study). European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 24(03), 165-171.
Kihupi, D.J. (2012). Challenges facing female workers working on construction sites in Tanzania. Unpublished BSc. in Building Economics Dissertation, Department of Building Economics, ARDHI University(ARU), Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Kikwasi, G.J. (2005). Women in construction industry, the blocked resources. The National Construction Council of Tanzania.
Kikwasi, G.J. (2005). Increasing women employment in the construction industry. Published PhD Thesis, Beijing University of Technology, Peoples Republic of China.
Kikwasi, G.J. & Escalante, C. (2018). Roles of the construction sector and key bottlenecks to supply response in Tanzania. The United Nations University (UNU) - World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), WIDER Working Paper 2018/131, Published by UNU-WIDER, Helsinki, Finland, ISBN: 9789292565732, 24 Pages.
Kombo, D.K. & Tromp, D.L.A. (2014). Proposal and thesis writing; An introduction. (14th ed.). Nairobi, Kenya: Paulines Publication Africa.
Kothari, C.R. (2019). Research methodology, methods and techniques. (4th Revised ed.). Daryaganj, New Delhi: New Age International (Pvt) Limited Publishers.
Książek, M. & Kosy, K. (2017). Gender aspects in construction. Chapter 04, Page 67-103, In Diversity Management in Construction. 128 Pages, Construction Managers’ Library, Erasmus+ 2015-1-PL01-KA202-016454, Published By Civil Engineering Faculty of Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, ISBN: 978-83-947920-3-9.
Kumar, R. (2011). Research methodology: A step by step guide for beginners. (3rd Revised ed.). New Delhi, India: SAGE Publication Pvt LTD.
Kumar, R.B. (2013). Gender discrimination among construction workers with reference to Vijayawada. Journal of Sociology and Social Work, 01(01), 42-53.
Kumar, K. & Chaturvedi, R. (2018). Women in construction industry: A work-life balance perspective. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), 09(08), 823-829.
Lema, N.M. (2017). Human resource needs and skills development of the construction sector in Tanzania. LTTP Report-Planning Commission, Unpublished Research Report.
Lombardi, M.R. (2017). Women engineers in construction: the feminization possible and gender discrimination. ISSUE IN FOCUS, São Paulo, Brasil, 24 Pages, (http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/198053143619).
Loosemore, M., Dainty, A., & Lingard, H. (2003). Human resource management in construction projects: strategic and operational approaches. London, United Kingdom: Spon Press, Published by Taylor & Francis.
Luvara, V.G.M. & Mwemezi, B.R. (2017). Obstacles against value management practice in building projects of Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Construction Engineering and Management (IJCEM), 06(01), 13-21.
Magigi, W. (2016). Methodological tools for researching and scientific writing in emerging economies; A guide to understand research process, proposal writing, data collection, analysis and scientific writing. Tanzania: Safi Publishers and Trading Co. LTD.
Malekela, K.N. & Daata, R.M. (2018). Assessment of gender issues in the construction industry in Tanzania. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 59(04), 175-181.
Mathew, M. (2014). Women in construction management: identification of the most effective factors in attracting and retaining freshmen and sophomore level students. Unpublished Dissertation for a Master of Science Degree in Construction Management, Graduate and Professional Studies, Texas A&M University, 109 Pages.
Mikapagaro, N.A., Tesha, D.N.G.A.K., Maro, G.C., & Edson, B.K. (2018). The implementation of risk management strategies in joint venture building projects in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), 66(03), 133-153.
Moir, S. Thomson, M., & Kelleher, C. (2011). Unfinished business:- Building equality for women in the construction trades. A Research Report from the Labor Resource Center, College of Public and Community Service, and the Center for Women in Politics & Public Policy, McCormack Graduate School of Policy and Global Studies, Published by Labor Resource Center Publications. Paper #05, Page 37. Available at: http://scholarworks.umb.edu/lrc_pubs/5.
Msangi, N. (2018). Assessment of motivation and challenges facing women quantity surveyors in consulting firms. BSc. in Building Economics Dissertation, Department of Building Economics, ARDHI University(ARU), Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Naismith, N., Robertson, S., & Tookey, J. (2017). Identifying barriers to retaining female professionals in engineering and construction organizations. EPiC Series in Education Science Journal, AUBEA 2017: Australasian Universities Building Education Association Conference, 01, 227-234.
National Women’s Law Center (NWLC). (2014). Women in construction still breaking ground. Available at: https://www.nwlc.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/final_nwlc_womeninconstruction_report.pdf.
Navarro-Astor, E., Román-Onsalo, M., & Infante-Perea, M. (2017). Women’s career development in the construction industry across 15 years: main barriers. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 15(02), 199-221.
Nayak, J.K. & Singh, P. (2015). Fundamentals of research methodology: Problems and prospects. (1st ed.). New Delhi, India: SSDN Publisher & Distributors.
Ngonde, D.F. (2015). Job satisfaction among workers in the construction industry: A case of national housing corporation. Unpublished Dissertation Submitted for the Degree of Master of Business Administration of the Open University of Tanzania, 80 Pages.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). (2016). Tanzania construction. Available at: www.tanzaniainvest.com
NBS. (2014). Integrated labour force survey. United Republic of Tanzania.
Okangi, F.P. (2018). Linking entrepreneurial motivation factors to firm growth:- Empirical evidence from the construction industry in Tanzania. Journal of Business Management Review, 21(02), 30-42.
Othman, N.L. & Jaafar, M. (2013). Personal competency of selected women construction project managers in Malaysia. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 11(03), 276-287.
Osubor, O. (2016). Factors that influence female folks to engage in building and civil engineering construction site work in Nigeria– A case study of Isoko women. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 05(11), 131-137.
Pruzan, P.M. (2016). Research methodology: The aims, practices and ethics of science. Switzerland: Springer International.
Rajanna, K.A. (2015). Nature of work, working conditions and problems of women construction workers: A case study. International Journal of Business Quantitative Economics and Applied Management Research, 01(09), 70-85.
Regis, M.F., Alberte, E.P.V., Lima, D.D., & Freitas, R.L.S. (2019). Women in construction: shortcomings, difficulties, and good practices. Journal of Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ECAM-09-2018-0425.
Rosa, J.E., Hon, C.K.H., Xia, B., & Lamari, F. (2017). Challenges, success factors and strategies for women’s career development in the Australian construction industry. International Journal of Construction Economics and Building, 17(03), 27-46.
Rusetski, A. (2011). Getting proactive: Cultural and procedural drivers of managerial motivation to act. Journal of Business & Economic Research, 09(01). Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293022632_Getting_Proactive_Cultural_And_Procedural_Drivers_Of_Managerial_Motivation_To_Act/download.
Samwel, J.O. (2018). An assessment of the challenges facing recruitment, selection and retention process in small industries in Mwanza region. International Journal of Business and Management Invention (IJBMI), 07(03), 35-41.
Sangweni, N. (2015). Women in construction: hindrances that shorten the professional working life of female site engineers on construction sites in South Africa. Unpublished Master of Science in Building (Project Management in Construction), Research Report, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 121 Pages.
Sang, K.J.C. & Powell, A. (2012). Equality, diversity, inclusion and work life balance in construction. (2nd ed.). 34 Pages, in a Dainty, A., & Loosemore, M., (Eds.), “Human Resource Management in Construction: Critical Perspectives”, (2nd Edition., Page 163 to 196). Routledge. (https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203842478).
Saris, W.E. & Gallhofer, I.N. (2014). Design, evaluation, and analysis of questionnaires for survey research. (2nd ed.). Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Scott, J., Dex, S., Joshi, H. (2008). Women and employment; changing lives and new challenges. Cheltenham, Northampton, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Shadare, O.A. & Hammed, T.A. (2009). Influence of work motivation, leadership effectiveness and time management on employees’ performance in some elected industries in ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 01(06), 07-17.
Sospeter, G.N. (2016). Model for exploring women entrepreneurial motivation in the Tanzanian construction industry. Journal of Business Management Review, 19(01). Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6b1d/79e7badd6063e844a89d59df075b86f1cff1.pdf?_ga=2.93631518.2096603751.1582122467-339894083.1545142831.
Sospeter, G.N. (2016). Challenges facing women entrepreneurs in the construction industry in Tanzania. Journal of Business and Economics, 07(11), 1907-1918.
Sospeter, G.N., Rwelamila, P.D., Nchimbi., & Masoud, M. (2014). Review of theory and practice literature on women entrepreneurship in the Tanzanian construction industry: Establishing the missing link. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries (JCDC), 19(02), 75-85.
Tessa, W. (2016). Gender and sexuality in male-dominated occupations, women working in construction and transport. London, United Kingdom: Springer Nature.
United Republic of Tanzania–(URT). (2016). The national five year development plan 2016/17 – 2020/21;- Nurturing industrialization for economic transformation and human development. Ministry of Finance and Planning, Published by Government Printers, Dodoma, Tanzania, 316 Pages.
United Republic of Tanzania–(URT). (2018). The economic survey 2017. Dodoma, Tanzania: Ministry of Finance and Planning, Government Printers.
Watts, J.H. (2009). Leaders of men: Women managing in construction. Journal of Work, Employment and Society, 23(03), 512-530.
Whiteley, P. (2002). Motivation. Oxford, United Kingdom: Capstone Publishing.
Wright, T. (2014). The women into construction project: An assessment of a model for increasing women’s participation in construction. Centre for Research in Equality and Diversity,(CRED), School of Business and Management, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom (U.K.), 72 Pages.
Zinyemba, A.Z. (2014). The challenges of recruitment and selection of employees in Zimbabwean companies. International Journal of Science and Research, 03(01), 29-33.
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.