Improvement of the Index and Compaction Characteristics of Black Cotton Soil with Palm Kernel Shell Ash
The expansive soil obtained from Baure in Yamaltu Deba Local Government Area was rich in clay mineral (montmorillonite), unstable and difficult to use for construction purposes. The soil treated with up to 12% palm kernel shell ash (PKSA an agro – waste) by weight of dry soil to improve index properties and compaction characteristics of the soil using PKSA. Index tests were carried out to classify the natural soil, while the moisture-density relationships were determined by compaction tests on the natural and treated soils using three energy levels viz, British Standard light (BSL), West African Standard (WAS) and British Standard heavy (BSH). BCS used in the study was classified as A-7-5 (20) using the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) and CH group in the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS). Tests results show that specific gravity of the soil increased from 2.29 for the natural to 2.34 at 12% treatment. Liquid limit decreased from 76.2% for natural to 73.4% at 10% PKSA content. Plastic limit increased from 40% for the natural soil to 47.1% at 12% PKSA content treatment. Maximum dry density (MDD) values decreased from 1.44Mg/m3, 1.5Mg/m3 and 1.65Mg/m3 for the natural soil to 1.38Mg/m3 at 10%, 1.45Mg/m3 at 10% and 1.56Mg/m3 at 6% PKSA content for BSL, WAS and BSH compaction energy levels respectively. On the other hand, optimum moisture content (OMC) value decreased from 28.5% and 22.4% for the natural soil to 22.4% and 21.0% at 12% PKSA content for BSL and WAS energies respectively while the value for BSH energy increased from 18.2% to 19.0% at 8% PKSA content. Results show that PKSA is suitable for the improvement of the index properties and compaction characteristics of BCS; and its beneficial use will reduce the attendant disposal problem on the environment.
AASHTO (1986). Standard specification for transportation, material and methods of sampling and testing. (14th ed.). Washington D.C: Amsterdam Association of State Highway and transportation official.
ASTM C618-78. (1978). Specification for fly ash and raw or calcinated natural pozzolans for use as a mineral admixture in Portland cement concrete. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia.
ASTM. (1992). Annual book of standards. Vol. 04.08. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.
Bell, F.G. (1993). Engineering geology. London, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publication.
BS 1377. (1990). Methods of testing soil for civil engineering purposes. London: British Standards Institute.
BS 1924. (1990). Methods of tests for stabilized soils. London: British Standards Institut.
Chen, F. H. (1988). Foundations on expansive soils. Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publication.
Clay, Jason. (2004). World agriculture and the environment. World Agriculture and the Environment. pp. 219. ISBN 1-55963-370-0.
Edeh, J. E., Eberemu, A. O., & Arigi, A. S. D. (2012). Reclaimed asphalt pavement stabilized using crushed concrete waste as highway pavement material. Advances in Civil Engineering Materials, 1(1), 1–14.
Gidigasu, M.D. (2009). Engineering pedology and geological considerations in geomechanical characteristics of problem tropically weathered soils with special reference to lateritic and saprolitic soils. Proceeding of the ISSMGE international Seminar on Ground Improvement for Accelerated Development, Accra, 2, pp. 55-79.
Gidigasu S. S. R & Gawu S. K. Y. (2013). The mode of formation, nature and geotechnical characteristics of black cotton soils. Standard Scientific Research and Essays, 1(14), 377-390.
Highway Research Board. (1943). Use of soil-cement mixture for base course. wartime road problems, No. 7. Washington. Ingles: National Council Division Engineering. Industrial Research.
Klinkenberg, K. & Higgins, G M. (1968). An outline of northern Nigerian soils. Nigerian Journal of Science, 2, 91-111.
Kolade O.O, Coker A.O, Sridhar, M. K. C, & Adeoye, G.O. (2006). Palm kernel waste management through composting and crop production. Journal of Environmental Health Research, 5(2), 81-85.
Manjularani.P, Channabasavaraj.W, & Md Khaja Moniuddin. (2015). Augmenting the properties of black cotton soil using additives. International Journal of New Technology and Research, 1(3), 42-45.
Mu’azu, M. A. (2007). Evaluation of plasticity and particle size distribution characteristics of bagasse ash on cement treated lateritic soil. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, 137-152.
Muhammad, M. N & Yamusa, B. Y. (2013). Influence of locust bean waste ash on cation exchange and plasticity characteristics of cement modified lateritic soil. American Journal of Civil Engineering, 1(2), 58-63.
NBRRI. (1983). Engineering properties of black cotton soils of Nigeria and related pavement design. Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute, Paper No 1, p. 22.
Nicholas, J. G. & Lester, A. H. (1999). Traffic and highway engineering. (2nd ed.). New York, USA: Books/Cole Publishing Company.
Nigerian General Specifications. (1997). Roads and bridges. Abuja, Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Works.
O’Flaherty, C. A. (1988). Highway engineering, 2, London: Edward Arnold.
Oriola, F. & Moses, G. (2010). Groundnut shell ash stabilization of black cotton soil. Available at: http://www.ejge.com/2010/Ppr10.036.pdf.
Osinubi K. J., Eberemu A. O., & Akinmade O. B. (2016). Evaluation of strength characteristics of tropical black clay treated with locust bean waste ash. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. DOI 10.1007/S/10706-015-9972-7.
Osinubi, K. J. & Ijimdiya, T. S. (2008). Laboratory investigation of engineering use of bagasse ash. Nigerian Society of Engineers Technical Transactions, 43(1), 1-17.
Oti, J. E. Kinuthia, J, J. M. Robinson, R. & Davies P. (2015). The use of palm kernel shell and ash for concrete production. International Journal of Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering, 9(3), 246–253.
Oyelakin, M. A. (2011). Cement stabilization of black cotton soil using locust bean waste ash as admixture. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Sani, J. E. (2009). Locust bean waste ash stabilization of black cotton soil using cement kiln dust as an activator Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Pp 71 – 72.
Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.