Decomposing of Urban Poor / Non-Poor Differential in Childhood Malnutrition and Mortality in India, 2015-16

  • Ujjwal Das
Keywords: Child Malnutrition, Blinder–Oaxaca, Fairlie Decomposition, Poverty



The high level of childhood malnutrition due to mortality in India is a major hurdle impeding the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals–3 (SDG–3). The present study aims to quantify the contribution of factors that explain the poor/non-poor gap in malnutrition and mortality status of children 0-5 years in urban India using data from 2015-16 of fourth round National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4).


For understand the gap in child health between the urban poor and non-poor, and across the selected covariate were used the descriptive statistics. Furthermore Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition and non-liner Fairlie decomposition technique both were used to explain the factors contributing to the average gap in under nutrition between poor and non-poor children in urban India.


The result suggested that explained the gap urban poor/non-poor in nutritional indicator stunting and underweight were 40 and 46 percentage and childhood infant and under-five mortality were 40 and 48 percentage respectively. The maternal factor mainly for lower education contributed much more changed in child health status those are living in urban poverty.


The overall finding indicate that children living poor household higher level malnutrition and mortality due to poor health status and poor education of mother, lower health care service and less exposed to mass media. This finding help to policy maker reducing the gap of child undernutrition between urban poor and the non-poor and low coverage of health services among the urban poor.


Download data is not yet available.


Arif, G. M., Farooq, S., Nazir, S., & Satti, M. (2014). Child malnutrition and poverty: the case of Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 53(2), 99-118.

Barker, D. J. (1995). Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. British Medical Journal, 311, 171–174.

Bhat, P. N. Mari & Zavier, Francis. (1999). Findings of national family health survey—Regional analysis. Economic and Political Weekly, 34, 3008–3032.

Black, R. E., Morris, S. S., & Bryce, J. (2003). Where and why are 10 million children dying every year?. The Lancet, 361(9376), 2226-2234.

Blinder AS. (1973). Wage discrimination: reduced form and structural estimates. Journal of Human Resources, 8, 436–455.

Bora, J. K., Lutz, W., & Raushan, R. (2018). Contribution of education to infant and under-five mortality disparities among caste groups in India (No. 03/2018). Vienna Institute of Demography. Working Papers.

Cotton J. (1998). On the decomposition of wage differentials. Rev Econ Stat., 70(2), 236–243.

Das J & Hammer J. (2007). Location, location, location: Residence, wealth, and the quality of medical care in Delhi, India. Health Affairs. 26(3), 338-351.

Deaton, A. & Dréze., J. (2009). Food and nutrition in India: Facts and interpretations. Economic and Political Weekly, 44, 42–65.

Fairlie, R.W. (2016). Addressing path dependence and incorporating sample weights in the nonlinear blinder-oaxaca technique for logit, probit and other nonlinear models. University of California: Santa Cruz, CA, USA, pp. 1–23.

Gopalan C. (1992). Under-nutrition: Measurement and implications. In: OSMANI, Siddiq (ed.) Nutrition and Poverty, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp. 17-47.

Jann B. (2008). The blinder-oaxaca decomposition for linear regression models. The Stata Journal, 8(4), 453–479.

Khadse, R. P. & Chaurasia, H. (2019). Nutrition status and inequality among children in different geographical regions of Maharashtra, India. Available at:

Kumar A & Ram F. (2012). Influence of family structure on child health: Evidence from India. Journal of Biosocial Science. Available at:

Kumar, A. & Kumari, D. (2014). Decomposing the rural-urban differentials in childhood malnutrition in India, 1992–2006. Asian Population Studies, 10(2), 144-162.

Kumar, A. & Singh, A. (2013). Decomposing the gap in childhood undernutrition between poor and non–poor in urban India. PloS One, 8(5), 2005–2006.

Lalou, R. & Mbacke, C. (1992). The micro consequences of high fertility on child malnutrition in Mali. Fertility, family size and structure. New York: Population Council, pp. 193-223.

Ladusingh, L. & Holendro Singh, C. (2007). Rich–poor gap in maternal care: the case of northeast India. Asian Population Studies, 3(1), 79-94.

Matthews, Z., Channon, A., Neal, S., Osrin, D., Madise, N., & Stones, W. (2010). Examining the “urban advantage” in maternal health care in developing countries. PLoS Medicine, 7(9).

Mazumdar, S. (2010). Determinants of inequality in child malnutrition in India. Asian Popul. Stud., 6, 307–333.

Miller, J. E. & Rodgers, Y. V. (2009). Mother’s education and children’s nutritional status: New evidence from Cambodia. Available at:

Mishra, V.K., S. Lahiri, & N.Y. Luther. (1999). Child nutrition in India. National Family Health Survey Subject Reports.

Nie, P., Rammohan, A., Gwozdz, W., & Sousa-Poza, A. (2019). Changes in child nutrition in India: A decomposition approach. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(10), 1815.

Nair, K.R.G. (2007). Malnourishment among Children in India: A Regional Analysis. Economic and Political Weekly, pp. 3797-3803.

National Urban Health Mission. (2010). National urban health mission draft. Urban Health Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi. Available at:

Neumark D. (1998). Employers’ discriminatory behaviour and the estimation of wage discrimination. J Hum Resource, 23, 279–295.

Nolan, L., Balasubramanian, P., & Muralidharan, A. (2014). Urban poverty and health inequality in India. In: Population Association of America Annual Meeting, Boston, MA.

Oaxaca R. (1973). Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. International Economic Review, 14, 693–709.

Pathak, P. K. & Singh, A. (2011). Trends in malnutrition among children in India: Growing inequalities across different economic groups. Social Science & Medicine, 73, 576–585.

Rosenberg, I. H., Solomons, N. W., & Schneider, R. E. (1977). Malabsorption associated with diarrhea and intestinal infections. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 30(8), 1248-1253.

Sereebutra, P., Solomons, N., Aliyu, M. H., & Jolly, P. E. (2006). Socio demographic and environmental predictors of childhood stunting in rural Guatemala. Nutrition Research, 26(2), 65-70.

United Nations Children’s Fund. (2013). Improving child nutrition: The achievable imperative for global progress. New York: UNICEF.

Victora, C. G., Wagstaff, A., Schellenberg, J. A., Gwatkin, D., Claeson, M., & Habicht, J. P. (2003). Applying an equity lens to child health and mortality: More of the same is not enough. The Lancet, 362(9379), 233-241.

Wagstaff, A. & N. Watanabe. (2000). Socioeconomic Inequalities in Child Malnutrition in the Developing World. Policy Research Working Paper, WPS 2434, Development Research group, The World Bank: Washington D.C.

Who Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group (2006). WHO Child Growth Standards. Available at:

Wiley A. (2002). Increasing use of prenatal care in Ladakh (India): The roles of ecological and cultural factors. Social Science & Medicine, 55(7), 1089–1102.

How to Cite
Ujjwal Das. (2020). Decomposing of Urban Poor / Non-Poor Differential in Childhood Malnutrition and Mortality in India, 2015-16. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 10(4), 88-97.