Challenges and Experiences of Students in the Virtual Classroom World: A Literature Review

  • Bhavika Pandita Hakhroo Student, Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies, Symbiosis International University, Pune, INDIA
Keywords: Online Learning, Online Classes, Online Education, Virtual Classroom


The study aims to discuss the experience students face in the virtual classroom mode. The limitations and challenges which students face while enrolling in online modes to learning from MOOC Courses to Distance Learning. The community of the people undertaking online education has increased significantly in the past few years. The paper reviews the literature on the topic of online classes, asynchronous and synchronous modes of delivery, the perception of students in the virtual learning and the experiences and challenges faced.


Download data is not yet available.


Armstrong, D. A. (2011). Students' perceptions of online learning and instructional tools: A qualitative study of undergraduate students use of online tools. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 222-226.

Barrett, B. (2010, Dec). Virtual teaching and strategies; transitioning from teaching from teaching traditional classes to online classes. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3(12), 17-20.

Basilaia, G., Dgebuadze, M., Kantaria, M., & Chokhonelidze, G. (2020, Mar). Replacing classic learning form at universities as an immediate response to the covid-19 virus infection in Georgia. International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology, 8(3), 101-108.

Beaudoin, M. F., Kurtz, G., & Eden, S. (2009, Jan). Experiences and opinions of e- learner: What works, what are the challenges and what competencies ensure successful online learning. IJELLO, 5(1).

Bowers, D. E. (2008). Persistence in online classes: A study of perceptions among community college students. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching.

Brent, M. (2004). Encouraging interaction in online classes. International Journal of Instructional and Distance Learning.

Brozik, D. & Zapalska, A. (2006). Learning styles and online education. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 325-335.

Cochran, J. D., Campbell, S. M., Baker, H. M., & Leeds, E. M. (2014). The role of student characterstics in predicting retention in online courses. Research in Higher education, 55(1), 22-48.

Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., & Glowatz, M. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Teaching and Learning.

Draus, P. J., Trempus, M. S., & Curran, M. J. (2014, Jun). The influence of instructor generated video content on student satisfaction and engagement in asynchrnous online classes. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(2), 240-254.

Falloon, G. (2011, Dec). Exploring the virtual classroom: What students need to know (and teachers should consider). MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(4), 439-451.

Gillett-Swan, J. (n.d.). The challenges of online learning and engaging the isolated learner. Journal of Learning Design, 20-30.

Harris, S, H., & Elwyn, M. (n.d.). Student motivations for choosing online classes. International Journal for Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(2).

Hiltz, S. R. & Wellman, B. (1997). Asynchronous learning networks as a virtual classroom. 44-49.

Hostetter, C. & Busch, M. (2006). Measuring up online: The relationship between social presence and student learning satisfaction. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 6(2), 1-12.

Huss, J. A. & Eastep, S. (2013). The perceptions of students toward online learning at a Midwestern university: What are students telling us and what are we doing about it? Inquiry in Education, 4(2).

Jayaratne, K. & Moore, G. (2017). Perceptions of college students toward online classes implications for teaching online. NACTA Journal.

Johnston, J., Killion, J., & Oomen, J. (2005). Student satisfaction in the virtual classroom. The International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences.

Jorge Larreamendy-Joerns, G. L. (2006). Going distance with online education. Review of Educational Research, 76(4), 567-605.

Mansour, B. E. & Mupiga, D. M. (2007). Students positive and negative experience in hybrid and online classes. College Student Journal, 4(1), 242-248.

McBrien, J. L., Jones, P., & Cheng, R. (2009). Virtual spaces: Employing a synchronous online classroom to facilitate student engagement in online learning. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(3), 1-17.

Mupinga, D. M., Nora, R. T., & Yaw, D. C. (2006). The Learning Styles Expectations and Needs of Online Students. College Teaching, 54(1).

Murphy, E. & Coleman, E. (2004, June 15). Graduate students experiences and challenges in asynchronous discussions. CJLT, 30(2).

Newberry, B. (n.d.). Raising student social presence in online classes. ERIC Special Document.

Palmer & Wojciehow. (2005). Individual student characteristics: Can any be predictors of success in online classes? Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration.

Platt, C. A., Raile, A. N., & Yu, N. (2014, Dec). Virtually the same? Students perceptions of the equivalence of online classes to fac- to-face classes. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(3), 489-503.

Powers, S. M., Davis, M., & Torrence, E. (1998). Assessing the classroom environment of the virtual classroom. Annual Meetings of the Mid-Western Educational Research Association, Chicago, pp. 14-17.

Pstor, C. K. (2020). Sentiment analysis on synchronous online delivery of instruction due to extreme community in the philippines caused by COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies.

Rovait, A. P. & Wighting, M. J. (2005). Feelings of alienation and sense of community among higher education students in a virtual classroom. Internet and Higher Education, 8, 97-110.

Song, L., Singleton, E. S., Hill, J. R., & Koh, M. H. (2004). Improving online learning: Students perception of useful and challenging Characteristics. Internet and Higher Education, 7(1), 59-70

Yılmaz, Ö. (2015). The effects of 'live virtual classroom" on students achievement and students opinions about "live virtual classroom" at distance. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 14(1), 108-115.

Young, A. & Norgard, C. (2006). Assessing the quality of online courses from students perspective. internet and Higher Education, 9, 107-115.

How to Cite
Bhavika Pandita Hakhroo. (2021). Challenges and Experiences of Students in the Virtual Classroom World: A Literature Review. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, 11(2), 164-173.