International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Engineering and Management Research (IJEMR) is a "PRINT &amp; ONLINE" double-blind&nbsp;<a href="http://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/peerreview">peer-reviewed&nbsp;</a>"Bi-monthly" refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Engineering and Management subjects.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">IJEMR is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria, China, Indonesia and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on all Management, Computer Science &amp; Engineering, Mathematical Science &amp; Engineering, Agriculture Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Applications, Civil Engineering and other related topics.</p> Vandana Publications en-US International Journal of Engineering and Management Research 2394-6962 Strategic Drift and Organizational Culture in Oil and Gas Company of Nigeria https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/736 <p>The main purpose of this study was to examine the impact of strategic drift on organizational culture in the oil and gas company of Nigeria. The study used a survey research design. The primary method of data collection was employed for the study. A quantitative approach and multiple regression analysis were adopted for testing the hypotheses. Findings from the study revealed that strategic resilience, organizational flexibility and managerial culture have significant and positive relationships with organizational culture in the Oil and Gas Company of Nigeria, while has not significantly impacted the organizational culture in the Oil and Gas Company of Nigeria. The paper provides that strategic managers of the oil and gas companies in Nigeria need to build and improve on strategic resilience capability. The managers of oil and gas companies should encourage the widespread use of formal and informal organizational flexibility as a strategy to meet business, individual needs and good culture for sustainability. The research provides some contributions in theory and strategic management. The paper has provided insight for management thinking in terms of strategic drift and organizational culture in the Oil and Gas companies of the developing economy which has not been studied in the previous literature.</p> Monica C. Gajere Danjuma T. Nimfa Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 11 2 1 12 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.1 Classification of Metals used in the Sand Casting Process https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/731 <p>The Sand Casting Process And The Different Methods Used To Cast The Metals Are The Subjects Of This Paper. Casting Is A Manufacturing Process For Creating Complex Material Shapes. A Large Classification Is Needed To Understand The Metals Used By Researches, Why They Were Used, And What The Most Commonly Used Metal For Their Research Is. We Studied And Understanded The Various Types Of Sand Casting Processes Used By The Researchers In This Review Paper. And We Categorized And Graded All The Papers We Reviewed And Classified Based On Their Respective Study Areas And Material Use.</p> A. Arun R. BalaKrishnan R. Jayanthi H M S. Kevin A. Ranjith Raj S. Paramaguru R. Kumar M. Ganesan R. Rekha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 11 2 13 19 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.2 Method of Partnership with the Private Sector in Iraq https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/737 <p>The topic of public-private partnerships has been received with great interest by governments, societies and research centers around the world. After it became clear that the process of economic and social development is based on mobilizing and gathering all the potentials of society, including the energies, resources and experiences of both the public and private sectors, to participate in the institutional organizations that deal with the establishment and operation of projects of various kinds after the institutional arrangements faced separate and independent sectoral challenges and difficulties. In achieving the goals of development levels is an ambitious goal. Therefore, developed countries seek to develop institutions, legislation and institutional systems to adopt participatory organizations in which all sectors of society contribute to directing, managing and operating projects and businesses, developing and developing them in order to serve their purposes on the basis of cooperative participation, good governance, transparent accountability and mutual benefit.</p> <p>The success of the partnership is not limited to ensuring legislation and regulations only, but links must be established between it and the concept of governance. Both have multiple aspects related to administrative, legal, economic and social dimensions that meet at common points based on the principles of transparency, disclosure and accountability, and equal rights of stakeholders and responsibilities in order to raise the efficiency of resource use, enhance competitiveness, attract funding sources, and expand projects to create new job opportunities and support economic stability.</p> <p>The topic of public-private partnerships has been received with great interest by governments, societies and research centers around the world. After it became clear that the process of economic and social development is based on mobilizing and gathering all the potentials of society, including the energies, resources and experiences of both the public and private sectors, to participate in the institutional organizations that deal with the establishment and operation of projects of various kinds after the institutional arrangements faced separate and independent sectoral challenges and difficulties. In achieving the goals of development levels is an ambitious goal. Therefore, developed countries seek to develop institutions, legislation and institutional systems to adopt participatory organizations in which all sectors of society contribute to directing, managing and operating projects and businesses, developing and developing them in order to serve their purposes on the basis of cooperative participation, good governance, transparent accountability and mutual benefit.</p> <p>The success of the partnership is not limited to ensuring legislation and regulations only, but links must be established between it and the concept of governance. Both have multiple aspects related to administrative, legal, economic and social dimensions that meet at common points based on the principles of transparency, disclosure and accountability, and equal rights of stakeholders and responsibilities in order to raise the efficiency of resource use, enhance competitiveness, attract funding sources, and expand projects to create new job opportunities and support economic stability.</p> <p>Many researchers believe that the issue of partnership is still in its early stages of developing unified principles, rules and regulations that govern and regulate the various forms of partnerships between the public and private sectors to include all economic and social sectors as major topics. The concept, principles and standards are still being sought to develop, elaborate and categorize them in order to be placed in specific rules and frameworks.</p> Mohammed Hussain Motlag Redvan Ghasemlounia Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 11 2 20 27 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.3 Design and Analysis of Rotor Assembly of Hammer Mill Machine` https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/738 <p>The project deals with the Manufacturing with Design and Analysis of Hammer Mill Machine and Rotor Assembly of Machine of Capacity of 200 Kg/hr. Which is due to providing the transmission power of 5 HP to the machine.</p> <p>In this project, the Hammer mill machine body structure, Angle Frame and foundation frame for machine is designed using Catia. Also each and every part or component is required for machine is designed. In the present work by using standard design procedures, Diameter of the rotor of shaft of machine has been designed. Theoretical calculations done by using PTC Mathcad software for new learning experience and ease. When the shaft of the rotor is rotated at the given speed (rpm i.e. 1728 rpm) and the load applied to the shaft it should not bend during rotation. When the shaft is rotated under free conditions deflections will be created due to critical speed of the shaft.</p> <p>After Designing process, some of required drawings are converted into Ansys supported format i.e. drawings are imported into Ansys for further analysis. Meshing of the shaft model was done and the loads, stresses that were applied for the shaft to be checked out that the design should be safe one. The design should be safe when the values obtained from the design procedure were compared with the standard values and result obtained from the analysis using Ansys.</p> <p>As per the designing, the required parts are fabricated such as side plates, bearing support, doors, hinge supports by using conventional methods like gas cutting, welding, drilling, shaft turning, slotting, milling, etc. and some hardware materials buy from stores which is used for further assembly process. At the final step all parts are assembled according as per requirements. At the end actual capacity of machine is calculated by using conventional method.</p> Akash Santosh Pawar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 11 2 28 37 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.4 Image-Based Virtual Clothing https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/735 <p>Online shopping has found speedy growth for the fast-paced world in the present situation. Precisely garments shopping are one of the most exciting parts especially for ladies. The continuous changing fashion and newly designed outfits motivates customers for shopping. New online shopping stores have added an ease for shopping your desired products by removing the constraints of places and time limits. As far as garments are concerned, predicting the appropriate size and imaging the real life look of that garment just by viewing its image is a challenging task.</p> <p>The project introduces an easy and feasible solution for the online shopping try-on scenario by introducing an app with a digital try-on feature. It can enhance online shopping experience. In this project, we propose an idea for fitting a given 3D garment model on a person. We will use&nbsp; 3d models of the clothes that will fit on the image of the user and enable a user to see himself/herself wearing virtual clothes. The 3D models of the clothes are stored in the system. On opening the application, user can view the clothes available and by using the mobile’s camera the user can get an idea of how the garment will fit on him/her. This way the user can have a fair idea about the look of the garment.</p> Harshada Kudtarkar Dinesh Farad Ruchira Zope Prof. Dhanashree Hadsu Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 11 2 38 42 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.5 The Effect of Undergraduates’ Perception on Career Selection in Tourism and Hospitality Industry https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/740 <p>The tourism and hospitality industry is struggling with the issue of attracting and retaining quality educated employees. It has led to a shortage of skilled personnel to staff the growing tourism and hospitality businesses, after the COVID 19 Pandemic. The job turnover rate in the tourism and hospitality sector rose due to the contemporary situation in the world. Especially, the promogulated lockdown and travel ban adversely affected the job security of the employees in the tourism and hospitality sector. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the effect of undergraduates’ perception on career selection in tourism and hospitality industry. A total of 120 undergraduates representing three state universities were selected using stratified sampling method for this study. Primary data was collected via structured questionnaire. Quantitative data analysis methods along with the descriptive, correlation and multiple regressions were utilized to analyze the data using SPSS. Results confirmed that personal factors, educational factors and industrial factors impact on the willingness of career selection in tourism and hospitality industry. Moreover, personal factors are most influential to the career selection of undergraduates. Thus, Universities must enhance the opportunities for practical exposures, attitude development, sign memorandum of understanding, updating curriculum to shape the undergraduate perceptions.</p> Bandara.WMAH Gangananda.AMNM Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-09 2021-04-09 11 2 43 47 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.6 A Study on Deep Learning Methods for Skin Disease Classification https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/743 <p>Dermatological disorders are one among the foremost widespread diseases within the world. Despite being common its diagnosis is extremely difficult due to its complexities of skin tone, color, presence of hair. This paper provides an approach to use various computer vision-based techniques (deep learning) to automatically predict the varied sorts of skin diseases. The system makes use of deep learning technology to coach itself with the varied skin images. the most objective of this technique is to realize maximum accuracy of disease of the skin prediction. The people health quite the other diseases. Skin diseases are mostly caused by mycosis, bacteria, allergy, or viruses, etc. The lasers advancement and Photonics based medical technology is employed in diagnosis of the skin diseases quickly and accurately. The medical equipment for such diagnosis is restricted and costliest. So, Deep learning techniques helps in detection of disease of the skin at an initial stage. The feature extraction plays a key role in classification of skin diseases. The usage of Deep Learning algorithms has reduced the necessity for human labor, like manual feature extraction and data reconstruction for classification purpose.</p> N.Vanitha M.Geetha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-10 2021-04-10 11 2 48 52 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.7 The Role of Strategic Management and Modern Agricultural Technology in Developing Field Crops Cultivation https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/749 <p>The research aims to determine the role of agricultural system managers in Iraq in the field of strategic management and agricultural technology in developing field crops cultivation, and to achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher prepared A five-Axis questionnaire, which included 40 paragraphs for middle and executive directors, divided into five Axis, and dealt with [content, a questionnaire that included message scale, strategic analysis, vision formulation, characteristics of importance, objectives, types of strategies, strategy levels, strategy characteristics, strategy implementation, strategy evaluation.</p> <p>The research was carried out as a random sampling from agricultural departments from the governorate of Baghdad. After the questionnaire was done in the Google Documents program, the questionnaire was published on the social media sites of those involved in the agricultural sector and sent by e-mail to some managers and their assistants as it was not possible to provide them with the questionnaire on paper due to the Corona pandemic. A random sample was withdrawn by 55% of each category of the research community. Thus, the total sample size is 100. The weighted average, F-test, and LSD were used to analyze the data and obtain results using the SPSS program. One of the results of the research was that the general character of the level of experience in strategic management of agricultural system managers at the administrative levels [middle, executive] in the field of strategic management, general, was medium, The managers of the agricultural system need to be developed, and this is reflected in their knowledge capabilities in the field of strategic management to improve the level of performance of the units responsible for them. The researcher recommends the need to qualify the managers of the upper and middle departments and send them outside the country to acquire new concepts in strategic management and the need to increase their knowledge and skill capabilities in developing the strategy at the middle and executive levels] through specialized training programs in the field mentioned above.</p> Raad Fahad Almasshadni Redvan Ghasemlounia Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2 53 63 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.8 Entrepreneurial Orientation and Market Share of Selected Quoted Consumer Goods Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/750 <p>Firm performance is fundamental to businesses considering its role in assisting organisations to realize their goals and achieve successes. Consumer goods manufacturing industry in Nigeria are experiencing decline in performance like profitability, market share, sales growth, competitive advantage, and productivity resulting from poor application of entrepreneurial orientation measures. This study examined the interaction between entrepreneurial orientation and market share of selected quoted consumer goods manufacturing companies in Nigeria.The study adopted cross sectional survey research design. The population of the study was 1,551of twelve (12) quoted consumer goods manufacturing companies in Nigeria. Total enumeration was used to sample the entire population. A self-developed structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The Cronbach’s alpha ranges between 0.721 and 0.892. The response rate was 90.5%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Multiple and Hierarchical regression analysis).Findings revealed that entrepreneurial orientation components had significant influence on market share of selected quoted consumer goods companies in Nigeria (Adj. R<sup>2</sup> = 0.791; F <sub>(5,441)</sub> = 339.129, p= 0.000). The study concluded that&nbsp; entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness, competitive aggressiveness, proactiveness, risk-taking and planning flexibility) had significant effect on market share of selected quoted consumer goods companies in Nigeria and recommended that managers of selected quoted consumer goods manufacturing companies should practice entrepreneurial orientation ideologies to be able to be proactive and competitive enough to further boost the market portion of quoted consumer goods companies.</p> Okusanya, Adedoyin O. Akpa, Victoria O. Akinlabi. Babatunde H. Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-15 2021-04-15 11 2 64 74 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.9 Detecting Sugarcane Crop Yield using Decision Tree Classifier in the District of Muzaffarnagar https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/754 <p>The district of Muzaffarnagar is the highest sugarcane producing district in Uttar Pradesh and therefore is an important industrial district as well. The district is part of Western UP and it shares the problems of the sugar industry elsewhere in the state: unpredictable demands and crop failures. In this context, predicting sugarcane demand and informing its production can turn to be just the key to solve some of the problems the industry faces.</p> <p>The existing crop forecasting method for the cultivation of sugarcane used in UP relies, to a large degree, on subjective details, centred on the expertise of engineers in the sugar and alcohol field and on information on input demand in the supply chain. The measurement of the utility of the sample detection using NDVI images from the SPOT sensor used in the sensor's determination over the ECMWF model was possible to infer the official productivity data reported in the previously selected municipalities and harvest. Significant features of the municipal productivity of a given village is listed in a decision tree, and out of the combinations of attributes the corresponding municipal productivity is rated as "Normal" on the average urban productivity scale. Using data from the NDVI time-series between 2013 to 2020, we can discern the three classes of productivity in the meanwhile. Findings indicate that productivity in January ranked as less than mean, mean, and more than mean. The findings were more successful for the class Vegetation, the participants of which were permitted to conclude about the pattern of the average federal productivity prior to.</p> Ankit Kumar Anil Kumar Kapil Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-17 2021-04-17 11 2 75 82 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.10 OCR Text Extraction https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/747 <p>This research tries to find out a methodology through which any data from the daily-use printed bills and invoices can be extracted. The data from these bills or invoices can be used extensively later on – such as machine learning or statistical analysis. This research focuses on extraction of final bill-amount, itinerary, date and similar data from bills and invoices as they encapsulate an ample amount of information about the users purchases, likes or dislikes etc. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology is a system that provides a full alphanumeric recognition of printed or handwritten characters from images. Initially, OpenCV has been used to detect the bill or invoice from the image and filter out the unnecessary noise from the image. Then intermediate image is passed for further processing using Tesseract OCR engine, which is an optical character recognition engine. Tesseract intends to apply Text Segmentation in order to extract written text in various fonts and languages. Our methodology proves to be highly accurate while tested on a variety of input images of bills and invoices.</p> Alan Jiju Shaun Tuscano Chetana Badgujar Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-18 2021-04-18 11 2 83 86 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.11 Implementation of Circular Business Models in Construction and Demolition Waste Management of India https://www.ijemr.net/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/748 <p>In the world, around 30% of the total solid waste is construction and demolition waste. In India, as per the building material promotion council, 150 million tonnes of C&amp;D waste is generated every year. In the total C&amp;D waste, only one percent which is 6500 tonnes per day is recycled, mentioned in the report released by the Centre for science and environment, New Delhi. There is a rising gap between increasing demand and limited sources in the construction sector of India. It leads to market instability and environmental harm. Linear business model is most commonly used in present times. It is one of the main reasons for the increase of C&amp;D wastes. This linear approach (source-commodity-waste) encourages the one-use of products. It leads to excessive dumping of C&amp;D wastes in landfills, which is not a sustainable practice. Circular business models leads to closed-loop approach (source-commodity-waste-new source). The adoption of circular business models in C&amp;D waste management is the possible solution for the decreasing resources. This study aims to discuss the implementation of various approaches including conceptual models, methods, and tools of circular business models in the C&amp;D waste management in India, which leads to the circular economy and sustainable development. Through the study of recent literature sources, various data related to circular business models, circular economy are collected. Data analysis will be done using the literature review. This research will highlight the socio-economic, environmental benefits, improvements, and the applicability of circular business models in the C&amp;D waste management of India. This paper is concluded that framing strict circular economy policies for India would encourage the implementation of CBM in C&amp;D waste management which reduces the need for fresh resources and ensures sustainable development.</p> Jaya Surya R Dr. Kranti Kumar M Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-04-19 2021-04-19 11 2 87 93 10.31033/ijemr.11.2.12