International Journal of Engineering and Management Research <p style="text-align: justify;">International Journal of Engineering and Management Research (IJEMR) is a "PRINT &amp; ONLINE" double-blind&nbsp;<a href="">peer-reviewed&nbsp;</a>"Bi-monthly" refereed journal focusing on theories, methods and applications in all the fields of Engineering and Management subjects.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">IJEMR is an international academic journal which gains a foothold in INDIA, Srilanka, Bangladesh, Nigeria, China, Indonesia and opens to the world. We focused to publish papers/articles on all Management, Computer Science &amp; Engineering, Mathematical Science &amp; Engineering, Agriculture Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Applications, Civil Engineering and other related topics.</p> en-US (IJEMR Journal Admin) (Technical Team IJEMR) Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Agile Usage <p>Agile techniques that utilize iterative development are broadly used in various industry projects as a lightweight development technique which can satisfy the continuous changes of requirements. Short repetitions are used that are required for efficient product delivery. Traditional and old software development methods are not much efficient and effective to control the rapid change in requirements. Despite the benefits of Agile, criticism on agile methodology states that it couldn’t succeed to pay attention to architectural and design issues and therefore is bound to produce small design-decisions. The past decade has observed numerous changes in systems development with many organizations accepting agile techniques as a viable methodology for developing systems. An increase in the number of research studies reveals the growing demand and acceptance of agile methodologies. While most research has focused on acceptance rate and adaptation of agile practices, there is very limited knowledge of their post-adoption usage and incorporation within organizations. Several factors explain the effective usage of agile methodologies. A combination of previous research in Agile Methodologies, Diffusion of Innovations, Information Systems implementation, and Systems Development has been carried out to develop a research model that identifies the main factors relevant to the propagation and effective usage of agile methodologies in organizations.</p> Shahzeb Hussain, Namrata Bhadri, Syed Razauddin Shahlal Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Review of Rural Marketing in India and Innovations in Rural Marketing <p>The aim of this research is to study the current scenario of Rural Marketing in India, the rural market presents with its various opportunities and challenges, given how diversely populated the rural consumers in India are. The rural market consists of 83.3 crore people and this is what attracts marketers to enter in this market. To market in the territory of rural marketing corporations must understand the rural consumer. There is a shift incoming from urban to the rural marketing as the development and levels of literacy and awareness among the rural consumers is rising and these consumers want value for their money. Marketers when catering to rural consumers need to connect with them and also undertake demonstrations for the better understanding of the rural people. Many innovations in the strategy to market into the rural markets have been undertaken in the past years. This paper aims to understand these innovations and strategies and to understand the rural consumer of India. The future of rural marketing and the development in rural areas is promising in development of rural economies and for the people living in these rural areas a better life.</p> Bhavika Pandita Hakhroo Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 An Analysis of Constraints to Economic and Trade Cooperation between the China-Africa Community with a Shared Future <p>The constraints in the economic and trade cooperation of the China-Africa community of shared future that cannot neglect. The main constraints to the development of China-Africa economic cooperation include the imbalance of China-Africa economic and trade, the unitary commodity structure, and competition in the international market. There are differences in the political and legal values between China and Africa. Western developed countries restrict and exclude the economic cooperation between the Chinese and African communities, fabricate the China threat theory, and seek energy and political interests to disrupt the smooth development of China-Africa economic and trade cooperation.</p> Debongo Devincy Yanne Sylvaire Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 A Tribute to Jack Welch: Manager of the Century <p>Jack Welch was the CEO of&nbsp;<a href="">General Electric</a>&nbsp;(GE)&nbsp;from 1981 – 2001, when the company expanded significantly, its worth grew multifold, he was named -Manager of the Century by the Fortune magazine. &nbsp;The company saw increased market value from around $14 billion to $410 billion odd under his stewardship. This essay tries to highlight the importance of his leadership skills and his business decisions that shaped the course for the company. He has been an icon for future managers, he died in 2020.</p> Mohd Ossama Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 An Essay on Attributes of Leadership <p>Leadership is essential at all levels and all major organizations; it gives direction and perspective and sustained vision, which is translated into reality. Leadership encompasses all positions and covers many areas such as business, governmental, political and social. We look at some of the attributes of leadership in this essay.</p> Mohd Ossama Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 A Study of Talent Management Practices and Strategies in the Service Sector <p>Talent management is a mechanism which involves hiring, assigning, transferring, growth and retaining of employees in the organisation. It is important because it ensures top talent is attracted and effective employee performance, employee’s engagement and retainment of top talent. A thorough review of the work carried out shows that businesses are experiencing a talent shortage in this competitive period, which has placed pressure on them to recruit the best talent and to ensure that workers enter the company and choose to remain in the organization rather than seeking opportunities elsewhere. The importance of the different components of talent management for employees was another unexplored area. Existing research has not been able to resolve the problem of defining the importance of the different talent management elements and the weighting they bear for employees. The problem of employee perception and management perception of the efficacy of talent management activities has also not been discussed, to address this gap the researcher has attempted to study talent management practices in service sector. The author followed a systematic approach to address the research questions, the literature was reviewed, in research methodology, primary data was collected through questionnaire which followed a sampling method accompanied by hypothesis testing which revealed that the effective practices boosts up the efficiency of the employees and performance of the organization too.</p> Shweta Bobhate Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Soil Stabilization using Pro-base Technology <p>Roads are the lifeline of the nation and hence a road must be of better quality which could make effective land access possible. According to a research conducted in Sri Lanka, if you want to rescue a village from poverty, 10-20 years of educational subsidy might not work, but if the same amount of money is funneled on road infrastructure development, you can see results within 2 years. An effective road network ensures efficient delivery of goods and transportation of people, directly contributing to the economic growth of the region. Due to economic reasons in developing nations like India, it is not possible to make paved roads especially in rural areas. These areas are mostly connected by the use of unpaved roads called as earth road or soil roads. But there are many problems associated in building these roads particularly like deterioration of the surface usually by rutting and formation of potholes, dusty in dry state and muddy during wet state. The basis of this report is to make aware about the non-traditional soil stabilization technique using Probase SH-85 Soil Hardener for hardening soil of any type and TX-85 Soil Stabilizer &amp; Strengthener for stabilizing unstable soil and at last sealing it by spraying with Probase PB-65 Soil Sealant on soil surface. The Probase Road System ensures making soil road no longer dusty and muddy. These products are free from toxins and are environmental friendly unlike bitumen, soil-cement, lime and asphalt roads. Probase soil stabilizer will hence not only help in stabilizing the soil but will also reduce maintenance and construction cost, along with ensuring that the roads remain open and well operational in rainy season and dust-free in dry season that is to make it an all-weather road.</p> Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Gurmeet Singh Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Scarcity, Rural Consumers and COVID-19: Challenges and Opportunities <p>While the entire world is under constant observation and lock down caused by the Coronavirus COVID-19, the most suffered are being neglected. As the press says “The rich brought this virus in to the country and the one paying for it are the poor and marginalized population”. The virus has not only challenged the entire health and immune system, it has also taken a toll on the already damaged economy of our country. Every sector has been through loss, be it is production, transportation or supply chain. The major trouble is the larger the population density is, the bigger the threat it is going to be. As the same has been observed in Italy, India also is dreading for that nightmare to turn into reality. But the recipient of all these hassle and negligence comes down to the bottom of the pyramid. The nation and the GoI sure are trying to support every individual. Yet the question lies: Is this sufficient?</p> Arunjyoti Sarangi, Sandipana Das Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 A Hypothesis is Placed to Justify the Extendibility of Recommender System/ Recommendation System into Social Life <p>Researchers still believe that the information filtering system/ collaborating system is a recommender system or a recommendation system. It is used to predict the "rating" or "preference" of a user to an item.&nbsp; In other words, both predict rating or preference for an item or product on a specific platform. The aim of the paper is to extend the areas of the recommender system/recommendation systems. The basic task of the recommender system mainly is to predict or analyze items/product. If it is possible to include more products in the system, then obviously the system may be extended for other areas also. For example, Medicine is a product and doctors filter the particular medicine for the particular disease. In the medical diagnosis doctors prescribed a medicine and it a product. It depends on the disease of the user/patient so here doctor predicts a medicine or product just like an item is recommended in a recommender system. The main objective of the paper is to extend the Recommender System/Recommendation system in other fields so that the research works can be extended Social Science, Bio-medical Science and many other areas.</p> Shawni Dutta, Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Review of Security and Privacy Scheme for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) <p>Vehicles in a vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET) broadcast information about the driving environment in the road. Due to the open-access environment, this means that the VANET is susceptible to security and privacy issues. However, none of the related works satisfies all security and privacy requirements. Besides, their proposed has huge overhead in terms of computation and communication. The present paper is a provide a thorough background on VANETs and their entities; different security attacks; and all requirements of the privacy and security for VANETs. This paper may serve as a guide and reference for VANETs in the design and implementation of any new techniques for protection and privacy.</p> Israa M. Al-dulaimi, Ayman Khalil Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Database Performance Management in Cloud <p>Managing large chain of Hotels and ERP database comprises of core areas such as HRMS &amp; PIP.HRMS (Human Resource Management System), which further includes areas such as Soft Joining, Promotion, Transfer, Confirmation, Leave Attendance and Exit, etc. PIP (Payroll Information Portal), wherein employees can view their individual Salary details, submit investment declaration, Reimbursement claim &amp; CTC structuring, etc. Management of Large Chain of Hotels and ERP Database in AWS Cloud involves continuous monitoring with regards to the areas such as Performance of resource usages and optimization techniques relating to the use of PL/SQL. High Availability (HA) of data is accomplished through the Backup and Recovery mechanism and security of the data by Encryption &amp; Decryption mechanism.</p> Navendu Mishra, Jayant Sawarkar, Suraj Dubey Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Workplace Spirituality in State Universities and Colleges: Its Relation to the Work Well-Being and Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members <p>This study determined the relationship of workplace spirituality, work well-being, and job satisfaction among faculty members in state universities and colleges (SUCs) in Region XII, Philippines. The descriptive survey and correlational design were used employing quantitative data. The data were gathered through the questionnaire and administered to the 234 respondents.&nbsp; The gathered data were analyzed through frequency, percentage, weighted mean, and Pearson (r) Coefficient Correlation. The findings of the study revealed that faculty members agreed that their workplace spirituality has a “very high” positive correlation to work well-being (Ho₁). It was also found out that faculty members agreed that their workplace spirituality has a “very high” correlation to job satisfaction (Ho₂). Given the overall results, the study recommends sustaining the workplace spirituality of the faculty members to remain high in their work well-being and job satisfaction.</p> Noe P. Garcia, Roel D. Juevesa Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Structural and Finite Element Analysis of Steering Yoke of an Automobile <p>This paper postulates the study of the structural analysis of steering yoke.&nbsp; In a steering system, steering column is one of the main device of an automobile. It is a very important to attain stability and steady movement of vehicle. The core part of steering column is manufactured through various processes such as hot forging, machining and assembly by welding. Power transmission system of vehicle consist several components which sometimes suffer from different stresses (failures) While a generalized case shall be taken up for study while pursuing dissertation work on this topic, the findings are expected to throw light on the causes, location and extent of stresses on the parts in the sub-assembly In this study, the nature and characteristics of stresses acting on the component by using software tools (for simulation/analysis) are carried out.</p> A. B. Nitalikar, Prof. R. D. Kulkarni, Prof. A. Z. Patel Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Towards Pragmatic Economic Policies: Economic Transformation and Industrialization for Revival of Zimbabwe in the New Dispensation Era <p>Whilst literature has many monetary and economic policies that were enacted before and after the dawn of the New Dispensation in Zimbabwe the country still faces a downward trend in terms of economic recovery. This study reviews the various policies put in place by the government and their impact on socio-economic development of Zimbabwe. A review of Zimbabwe’s economic history shows that the country dropped from being one of the best economies in Sub-Saharan Africa and now ailing and characterised by hyperinflation, agricultural challenges, corruption, very high tax regime, huge domestic and foreign debts, increase in consumer prices and being a chief net importer of most goods or services. The study was underpinned by a case study survey from Singapore’s revival with both qualitative and quantitative instruments used. The study found out that even though the land reform had an impact on economic performance, corruption, party-power politics and absence of an economic institute eroded any necessary contribution to economic transformation and industrialization in Zimbabwe. The study also revealed that the bilateral and multi-lateral agreements that were enacted in the dawn of the new dispensation have not yielded the desired economic revival transformations. The study recommended establishment of an economic institute to direct policy as well as removal of unethical practices in both public and private sectors so as to ensure financial and economic discipline.</p> Charles Mazhazhate, Tapiwa C Mujakachi, Shakerod Munuhwa Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Prediction of Corporate Bankruptcy using Financial Ratios and News <p>A corporate’s insolvency can have catastrophic effects on not only the corporate but also on the returns of its lenders and investors. Predicting bankruptcy has been one of the most sought-after areas for researchers for many decades. This study involves predicting the bankruptcy of the United States corporates using financial ratios and news data. The financial ratios of the companies were extracted from yearly financial reports of the companies, and the news data of the companies was scrapped from online newspapers, reports and articles using Google News. The news data was analyzed for negative and positive sentiments. The sentiment scores, along with the financial ratios of the companies, were given as features to the machine learning models. Various models were analyzed for their results such as Random Forest, Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The study finds the best results from the random forest model with an accuracy of 90%. Moreover, the significant feature importance of the sentiment score given by the model proves that unstructured data, such as news, can play a crucial part in predicting bankruptcy in conjunction with the structured data, such as financial ratios.</p> Isha Arora, Navjot Singh Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 A Study on Customer Perception towards Hike in Prices of Online Food Delivery Channels <p>Online Food Delivery channels have emerged in recent years which have made all the customers almost their slaves across India as most of us heavily rely upon them. At a lesser cost, these help us to order our food items with a wide variety of choice. When it comes to cost, Delivery charges play a major important factor in determining the price of different items through different online food channels.Customers as well as business houses now a days have a contemporary perception of delivery charges associated with such products and services available in the market</p> <p>This research paper explains the customer perception towards their ordering capacity when delivery charges are taken into consideration by them and more often are possibly changed by these food delivery partners. To study the customer perception, a sample size of 106 respondents was chosen and the data collected from such respondents was analyzed using Cross Tabulation and Chi Square Tests. It was elucidated from the analysis that for most of the customers delivery charges influences their capacity to order and most of the times customers have changed their mind to order online food when delivery charges are considerably high.</p> Gaurav K Mangar, Ramandeep Singh Arneja, Deepti Thakur Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 The Effects of Socio-Cultural, Economical, Political and Geographical Factors on International Trade (A Case Study on Afghan-India Trade Relations) <p>From an early age, human beings have been involved in a number of works and activities for the supply and continuing of life, the most important and main work was to trade. Ever since humans began social life, their business and trade relationships have been more significant due to meeting and needs of their lives alongside other human relationships. Day by day human communities expanded and the world divided into dependent and independent countries, and the countries considering to their needs and other effective factors developed their trade relationships with each other. Afghanistan and India from the early age considering to the Economical, Social, Cultural, Political and Geographical factors have followed the good trade relationships with each other and this trend is expanding and developing day by day. India is the second importer and exporter for Afghanistan and the main motivation behind this trade is some impactful factors (Economical, Social, Cultural, Political and Geographical factors) that based on them the trade relationships between India and Afghanistan is increasing and developing.</p> Haqiq Rahman Hutak, Daqiq Rahman Hotak Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Analysis of the Factors Affecting Violent Crime Rates in the US <p>The goal of this study is to analyze the factors affecting violent crime rates in the US. It is hypothesized that an increase in the gun ownership rate tends to increase violent crimes in the US. It is hypothesized that urban areas in the US tend to have more violent crimes than rural areas. An OLS regression model is formulated using cross-sectional data set across 50 states and the District of Columbia for the year 2019. The endogenous variable is the violent crime rates per 100,000 inhabitants across 50 states and the District of Columbia. The independent variables used in the OLS regression model are population density per square mile, unemployment rate, percentage of the population living in poverty, and gun ownership rate. The four exogenous variables that are found to be statistically significant are gun ownership, unemployment rate, population density per square mile, and percentage of population living in property. An attempt is also made to formulate strategies that would help in reducing violent crime rates in the US.</p> Dr. Abhijeet Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Social Media Advertisements on Consumer Purchase Intentions <p>The purpose for developing this research paper was to get an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms, features, domains, etc. of social media advertisements, across social media platforms and how these specific things are influencing potential consumers in their buying behavior or in other words their purchase intention. The design of methodology is a mixture of exploratory research design and causal research design, (involving a questionnaire) as the study satisfies both mentioned research design protocols. &nbsp;The findings in terms of the responses (of the questionnaire) collected were intriguing as it depicted that some characteristics of social media advertisements had more impact in influencing their purchase intention, than some of the other. Consumers preferred certain attributes more than some other attributes pertaining to ads on their feeds. Thus, the study of their implications will provide valuable insights to any concerned party. The potential limitations of this research paper will be mainly that the respondents, demographic were limited to a certain figure thus a larger sample size, would make more sense in the future. Also, the practicability of developed hypothesis may vary according to circumstances, which act as a potential limitation. The practical implications of this study can act as a guideline to organizations looking to understand their consumer base, preferences over the social media domain, which could result in potentially building their brand equity.</p> Raunaq Dash, M Piyushkant Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Point of Time and Effectiveness of Cause-Related Marketing: Strike While the Iron is Hot <p>“Cause” is the word of positive-valence stimuli and increasing the like-hood intend to be a pair with it. Linking of consumer purchase with social cause is common and in rising trend. It’s a favorable tool of an organization to engage consumer and make his emotional attachment in charitable cause and increase sales volume. Previous Cause Related Marketing (CrM) literature has examined the CrM in term of consumer or in term of brand or purchase, we could not find any study which is investigating the mediating role of specific time between CrM and attitudes of consumers towards brand, ad, offer and cause involvement. Present study examines the best use of CrM according to time in beverages industry on soft drink on a holy occasion of Muslims (i.e. Ramazan). An already established questioner was used for collection of data. Mall intercept convenience technique is use to gather data. It’s a multiple group analysis study, data was collected two times, once during event and once after the event, sample size was remain same both times. Morgan’s formula is used to select the size of samples. Results of study show that CrM has influence on customer attitude which was being measured in three types, furthermore these attitudes has positively influence individual’s intention to buy a specific brand in a specific time period. This study will be provided a best use of CrM campaign according to time. Research will also direct the marketers to use of CrM on a specific time to tackle their customer’s attitude.</p> Khuram Faraz, Dr. Abdul Aziz Khan Niazi, Usman Zafar Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Cryo-Treated Blanking Punch Life Improvement Analysis <p>Cryogenic treatment is a secondary process to traditional heat treatment used for improving the hardness and wear resistance of tool steels. Though the potential use of cryogenic treatment on AISI D2 tool steel under laboratory conditions has been well established by the researchers, it is essential to do the analysis to ensure its sustainable use for industrial application. Therefore, impact of cryogenic treatment on AISI D2 steel blanking punch was evaluated in terms of increase in production rate and its life. The cryogenically treated D2 tool steel punches were used and subjected to manufacture the control levers using blanking operations.&nbsp; The improved wear resistance of cryogenically treated punch resulted in increase in production and punch life more than 200%. Punch life was studied and correlated to increase in production &amp; wear behavior of blanking punch. The AISI D2 steel samples were prepared and subjected to laboratory tests comprising of metallographic observations and hardness. It was found that laboratory tests were not enough to predict improvements in mechanical properties. The mechanism responsible for augmented wear resistance by cryogenic treatment was the conversion of retained austenite to martensite and precipitation of new secondary carbides.</p> Dr. M. M. Dhobe Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530 Evaluation of Artificial Lift Methods to Increase Oil Production from Depleting Oil Wells in Gulf of Mexico <p>This paper summarizes the research work with reference to artificial lift methods to increase oil production form mature oil wells in Gulf of Mexico.&nbsp;</p> <p>Increase oil production or oil recovery from oil reservoirs is very important. If the average worldwide recovery factor from hydrocarbon reservoirs can be increased beyond current limits, it will alleviate a number of issues related to global energy supply. Currently the daily oil production comes from mature or maturing oil fields and reserves replacement is not keeping pace with the growing energy demand. &nbsp;</p> <p>This paper presents big picture overview of artificial lift methods for mature oil wells in Gulf of Mexico.</p> Saurabh Goswami, Dr. T. S. Chouhan Copyright (c) 2020 International Journal of Engineering and Management Research Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0530